MANUSCRIPT is anything written by hand, in contrast to any other reading matter which is reproduced by mechanical means. Through the years people have used many different surfaces to write on (stone, wood, metal, ivory, clay, wax, papyrus, parchment, paper) with different writing tools, such as sharp nibs made of bone, copper or other metal, small cane (calamus) or long feather from birds (quill). In 1455 Gutenberg initiated a new era by printing 180 copies of the Bible.